New energy electric vehicles’ battery introduction
Aug 24, 2023
One of the most important components of new energy electric vehicles is the battery, which can be said the “heart” of new energy electric vehicles. And now one of the reasons hindering the development of new energy vehicles is the charging problem of the battery. Batteries are essential for the development of new energy electric vehicles. What are the major kinds of batteries? What is the performance of batteries? Amproad list out and give a comprehensive introduction to the current battery problems of new energy vehicles.
- VRLA battery
A valve regulated lead–acid (VRLA) battery, commonly known as a sealed lead–acid (SLA) battery, is a type of lead–acid battery characterized by a limited amount of electrolyte ("starved" electrolyte) absorbed in a plate separator or formed into a gel; proportioning of the negative and positive plates so that oxygen recombination is facilitated within the cell; and the presence of a relief valve that retains the battery contents independent of the position of the cells.
As a relatively mature technology, VRLA is still the only batteries for electric vehicles that can be mass-produced because of their low cost and high-rate discharge.
However, the specific energy, specific power and energy density of VRLA are very low, so it is impossible for electric vehicles using this as a power source to have good speed and cruising range.
- Nickel-cadmium battery
The nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
Although its performance is better than that of lead-acid batteries, but it contains heavy metals, which will pollute to the environment after being used and discarded.
Ni-Cd battery is currently the only battery system that has been actually verified, commercialized used in hybrid electric vehicles. It has 99% market share. The famous manufacturers mainly include Japan's PEVE and Sanyo.
- Lithium-ion battery
A lithium-ion or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery which uses the reversible reduction of lithium ions to store energy.
For lithium-ion battery have the following advantages: high working voltage (3 times that of Ni-Cd battery); large specific energy (up to 165WH/㎏, 3 times that of Ni-Cd battery); small size; light weight ; Long cycle life; low self-discharge rate; no memory effect; no pollution, etc. so now more electric vehicles manufacturer choose it as the power battery.
But Li-ion batteries are sensitive to temperature and very hard to recycle, it may pollute the environment.
- Fuel cell battery
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy usually comes from substances that are already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied.